Obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G) are two specialties that deal with the care of women during pregnancy and childbirth, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of diseases affecting the female reproductive organs.
Obstetricians and gynaecologists are specialists in women's health. O&G specialists cover both areas of specialties including childbirth and delivery, as well as women’s general health of the female reproductive system.
Obstetrics focuses primarily on care during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum. In addition to caring for the health of the foetus, their responsibilities include monitoring the uterus during pregnancy and other obstetrical conditions. These are conditions associated with pregnancy or childbirth.
Gynaecology focuses on reproductive health, as well as the functions and disorders distinct to women.
- Maternal-foetal medicine
- Reproductive endocrinology or infertility
- Gynaecological oncology
- Female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery
- Paediatric and menopausal gynaecology
It is necessary to consult an O&G specialist for:
- Pregnancy, labour, childbirth
- Ectopic pregnancy
- Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
- Pelvic inflammatory disease
- Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)
- Menstrual disorders
- Ovarian cyst
- Urinary incontinence
Common symptoms associated with gynaecological disorders:
- Soreness or redness in the genital area
- Pain in the pelvic region
- Vaginal discharge with unusual odour and colour
- If a home pregnancy test results show that you are pregnant, you must still schedule an appointment with an O&G specialist.
- It is recommended that you schedule your first prenatal visit within 8 weeks of your last menstrual period.
- Your doctor would be able to help you plan your pregnancy and provide you with the proper prenatal care.
For expectant mothers and their developing babies, antenatal care consists of medical and midwifery attention.
Good antenatal care allows the mother to care for herself and her baby. Medical advice, good nutrition, exercise, rest, and avoiding unwanted risks are important for a successful pregnancy.
- Pre-conception care and pregnancy diagnosis
- Routine antenatal screening programme
- External cephalic version
- Specialised investigations
- Ultrasound scanning
- Epidural anaesthesia
- Parentcraft classes
- Antenatal care
Tests that may be requested by an O&G specialist include:
- Blood tests
- Imaging tests such as X-rays, computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound scan and mammograms
- Pap smear
- Vaginal examination
- Biopsy to obtain a tissue sample for examination
- Vaginal cultures to identify infection causes
- Diagnostic laparoscopy
Some procedures include:
- Vaginal delivery or caesarean section delivery
- Forceps or vacuum delivery
- Dilatation and curettage (D&C)
- Tubal ligation
- Hysterectomy (removal of the uterus)
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