Obstetrics & Gynaecology | Best Gynaecologists in Malaysia

Obstetrics & Gynaecology (O&G) | Meet the Best Gynaecologists in Malaysia

Pregnant women

Obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G) are two specialties that deal with the care of women during pregnancy and childbirth, as well as the diagnosis and treatment of diseases affecting the female reproductive organs.

Obstetricians and gynaecologists are specialists in women's health. O&G specialists cover both areas of specialties, including childbirth and delivery, as well as women’s general health of the female reproductive system.

Obstetrics focuses primarily on care during pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum. In addition to caring for the health of the foetus, obstetricians’ responsibilities include monitoring the uterus during pregnancy and other obstetrical conditions. These are conditions associated with pregnancy or childbirth.

Gynaecology focuses on women’s reproductive health, as well as the functions and disorders distinct to women. Gynaecologists diagnose and manage disorders specific to the reproductive system, including preventive care, cancer screenings, and physical examinations.

Obstetrics & Gynaecology (O&G) subspecialties
  • Maternal-foetal medicine
  • Reproductive endocrinology or infertility
  • Gynaecological oncology
  • Female pelvic medicine and reconstructive surgery
  • Menopausal gynaecology
Pregnancy & Maternity (Obstetrics)
Women’s Health (Gynaecology)

Gleneagles Hospitals Prenatal & Maternity Services

For expectant mothers and their developing babies, antenatal care consists of medical and midwifery attention, such as pre-conception care and pregnancy diagnosis, routine antenatal screening, ultrasound scanning, specialised investigations, and cardiotocography (CTG).

Good antenatal care allows the mother to care for herself and her baby. Medical advice, good nutrition, exercise, rest, and avoiding unwanted risks are important for a successful pregnancy.

Smiling husband placing baby gloves on pregnant woman's belly

Antenatal (Prenatal) classes

Attend our antenatal (parentcraft) classes to give you confidence and guidance as you embark on your parenthood journey, as well as vital information such as:
  • Understanding the labour and delivery process.
  • Learning about relaxation and breathing techniques.
  • Learning about the basics of infant care.
  • Making preparations for breastfeeding.
  • Understanding the importance of prenatal and postnatal fitness.
Obstetrician performing a prenatal checkup on a pregnant woman

Labour & Birth

An expert team of highly skilled and experienced midwives and consultant obstetricians are supported by a wider team of healthcare professionals including anaesthetists and nurses to provide a safe and comfortable environment for labour and birth.

Our delivery suites are equipped with the latest technology for safe normal (vaginal) delivery, delivery through Caesarean section, and post-delivery care.

Mothers who are planning to have an epidural anaesthesia during labour can receive professional opinion and advice from the team of obstetricians.

All newborns are given neonatal screenings by a consultant neonatologists and paediatricians. Newborn care is inclusive of:
  • Routine blood screening for G6PD, TSH, blood grouping, and Rhesus factor
  • Immunisation for BCG, first dose of Hepatitis B, and Vitamin K
Women with her newborn baby


We provide optimal care for mothers and their precious newborn by the team of healthcare professionals including caring nurses and breastfeeding experts.

Taking care of yourself after giving birth during the postpartum period is important for your long-term health and overall well-being. Read our guide to help you understand what to expect after delivery and how to look after yourself during this time.

Visiting an OB/GYN specialist

If a home pregnancy test results show that you are pregnant, you must still schedule an appointment with an O&G specialist.

It is recommended that you schedule your first prenatal visit within 8 weeks of your last menstrual period. This is so even if you have had a smooth pregnancy before. Your Ob/Gyn doctor would be able to help you plan your pregnancy and provide you with the proper prenatal care.

Follow the schedule given by your Ob/Gyn doctor for the next appointment so that you can detect any abnormalities or emergencies. There can be a lot of appointments, planning, and milestones to keep track of. We will help you through every step of the process.

A normal, full-term pregnancy is 40 weeks, and can range from 37-42 weeks. Each trimester comes with its own specific hormonal and physiological changes.

Types of Prenatal Screenings and Tests for Mothers

Being aware of the ways that your growing baby is affecting your body will help you to better prepare yourself for changes as they happen. It is also helpful to be aware of the specific risk factors and associated medical tests for each of the three trimesters.

First Trimester (Week 1 - 12)
  • A full physical examination
  • Blood tests to determine:
    • Blood type and Rh factor
    • Anaemia (low haemoglobin)
    • Hepatitis B, Syphilis, HIV
    • Immunity to German measles (Rubella) and chickenpox
  • Calculation of your expected delivery date (EDD)
  • Systemic examination
Second Trimester (Week 13 - 27)

Glucose screening test: This test checks for gestational diabetes, a temporary condition which can develop during pregnancy.

Third Trimester (Week 28 - 40)
  • Group B Streptococcus screening: Group B Streptococcus is an infection that a mother can pass to her baby during birth. This test checks fluid from the cervix.
  • Non-stress test: This is a weekly test done on women who are in the category of high-risk pregnancy such as those carrying multiples or those with chronic health conditions like diabetes or high blood pressure.
  • Ultrasound: Ultrasounds are used to check growth and presentation of the baby among other things. It can be combined with a non-stress test to allow your gynae to check the baby’s movements, breathing, muscle tone, and amniotic fluid amount. If you are having multiples, you will have ultrasounds more often.
  • Biophysical profile: This test is done for women with chronic health conditions or overdue babies. Women with pregnancy complications such as decreased amniotic fluid, decreased foetal movement or placental irregularities may be advised to undergo this test.

Types of screenings for foetus

First Trimester (Week 1 - 12)

Ultrasound for foetal nuchal translucency (NT)

This test measures the area at the back of the foetus’ neck for thickening or extra fluid. Area that is thicker than normal may indicate Down syndrome, heart problems or trisomy 18. However, this is not a routine test, and it is usually conducted by a maternal-foetal medicine specialist.

Second Trimester (Week 13 - 27)

Second trimester detailed scan

This routine scan is typically conducted between weeks 20 and 24 of the second trimester. Also known as foetal anomaly scan, it is primarily conducted to assess the foetus’ anatomy and detect structural abnormalities of the foetus.

Third Trimester (Week 28 - 40)

The third trimester is an exciting time - your baby is almost here! Your doctor might check your baby’s presentation to ensure that it is head-first before labour.

If your baby is breech (feet-first or rump-first), your doctor may physically manipulate your baby to the correct position by applying pressure on your abdomen. This is usually performed with ultrasound guidance. A caesarean section delivery is another option for breech babies.

Potential complications during pregnancy

Complicated pregnancy-related conditions include:

Ectopic pregnancy, which refers to a foetus growing outside of the uterus. Most ectopic pregnancies develop in the fallopian tubes, which is referred to as a tubal pregnancy.
Preeclampsia, a medical condition that occurs because of hypertension or worsening of pre-existing hypertension during pregnancy that may lead to life-threatening multiple organ system damage.
Foetal distress, or non-reassuring foetal status, is a medical term used to describe situations in pregnancy or labour where concerns arise about the baby's oxygen supply and overall well-being.
Placental issues, refers to a range of conditions and complications related to the placenta, which is a vital organ that provides oxygen and nutrients to the developing foetus (e.g. placenta previa).

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Who and when should visit an obstetrician?

  • Women with or without underlying medical conditions who wish to be pregnant.
  • Women in their early pregnancy should have their pregnancy confirmed and exclude complications such as ectopic or molar pregnancy.
  • Women presenting with symptoms of miscarriage.
  • Pregnant women who are vomiting or bleeding excessively.
  • Pregnant women who require antenatal care or in labour.
  • Mothers having postpartum issues related to pregnancy or childbirth.

What to do if I have a high-risk pregnancy?

If your pregnancy is considered high risk, your doctor may refer you to a maternal-foetal medicine specialist, who is an obstetrician with special training in high-risk pregnancy care.

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Gynaecological Conditions and Symptoms

A female's internal reproductive organs are the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.

To learn more about gynaecological conditions and symptoms, select one of the following icons.





Fallopian Tubes

The uterus or womb is an inverted pear-shaped organ with thick muscular walls. It is located within the pelvis, between the bladder and rectum.

The uterus is composed of three layers: the outer peritoneal layer, the middle muscular layer, and the innermost lining, known as the endometrium. The endometrium thickens and prepares for implantation each month during the menstrual cycle, and if pregnancy does not occur, it is shed during menstruation.

On top of that, the muscular walls of the uterus can stretch and expand to accommodate a growing foetus. During labour, the muscular walls contract to push the baby out through the cervix and the vagina.

Conditions related to the uterus:

The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that extends into the vagina. Occasionally, it is referred to as the 'neck of the uterus.' The cervical os, an aperture located in the cervix, is capable of expanding during childbirth to facilitate the passage of the baby through the vaginal canal.

The cervix produces mucus that assists in the movement of sperm through the reproductive system and can vary in consistency throughout a woman's menstrual cycle to support fertility.

The cervix is also a crucial site for routine cervical cancer screening tests such as Pap smear that help detect any abnormal cells that could be a sign of cancer.

Conditions related to the cervix:

The vagina is a muscular tube-like structure that connects the external genitals (vulva) to the cervix. It is approximately 7cm to 9cm in length. The opening of the vagina is located between the urethra (where urine comes out) and the anus. The vagina is often called the birth canal as it provides the passageway for the delivery of a baby.

Conditions related to the vagina:

The ovaries are a pair of oval-shaped organs located in the pelvis on either side of the uterus. They produce, store, and release eggs (ovum) into the fallopian tubes during ovulation. The ovaries also produce hormones such as oestrogen and progesterone, important for regulating the menstrual cycle and maintaining reproductive health.

Conditions related to ovaries:

Fallopian tubes are also known as uterine tubes that connect the ovaries to the uterus. Each tube is about 10cm long. The fallopian tubes are divided into the infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus. The infundibulum is the funnel-shaped opening at the end of the fallopian tube nearest to the ovary. It is lined with finger-like projections called fimbriae that help to sweep the egg released from the ovary into the tube. The fertilisation of the egg by sperm usually occurs at the ampulla.

The inner lining of the fallopian tubes is made up of ciliated cells and secretory cells. The cilia are hair-like structures that move in a coordinated way to help sweep the egg towards the uterus. The secretory cells produce substances that nourish the sperm and the developing embryo.

Conditions related to the fallopian tubes:

Click the “+” symbol on the uterus diagram below to find out more about various gynaecological conditions and symptoms.

Screening and Diagnosis for Gynaecological Conditions

Gynaecological examinations serve several purposes. The most important thing is to diagnose any abnormalities as quickly as possible. The sooner the treatment, the better the chances of managing or recovering from the condition.

Pelvic examination

Pap smear test



Laparoscopy (Pelvic Endoscopy) Tubes

Pelvic examination

A pelvic examination is a visual and physical examination of a woman's reproductive organs. You might need a pelvic examination to:

Pap smear test

The Pap smear test (or Pap test) is a screening test to detect abnormal cell changes of the cervix (the lower part of the uterus that opens into the vagina). Cell changes can develop on the cervix that, if not found and treated, can lead to cervical cancer.


Colposcopy is a procedure that allows the physician to take a close look at a woman’s cervix and vagina using a special instrument known as a colposcope.

The colposcope helps to identify or rule out the existence of any pre-cancerous condition in the cervix tissue. Further testing, such as a colposcopy, is required if a Pap test shows abnormal cell growth. This procedure may also be suggested for women with genital warts.


Mammography is the process of using low-energy X-rays to examine the breast tissues and to detect breast cancers. The mammogram can detect abnormal lumps before they can be felt. Women over 40 should undertake annual breast cancer screening.

Laparoscopy (Pelvic Endoscopy)

In laparoscopy, a rigid viewing tube called a laparoscope is inserted through a small incision in the abdomen, just below the navel. Fibreoptic cables permit the physician to visually inspect the abdominal and pelvic organs for abnormalities.

In addition, various instruments may be passed through the scope or other insertions to obtain fluid or tissue samples for laboratory examination.

Laparoscopy is used to:

  • Determine the cause of acute or chronic abdominal or pelvic pain or fluid accumulation in the abdomen.
  • Detect, evaluate, and treat abnormalities affecting the female productive organs in the pelvis; these include endometriosis, ectopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease, and abnormal growths (tumours, cysts, adhesions, or fibroids).
  • Detect pelvic abnormalities that prevent pregnancy and test for patency of the fallopian tubes as part of an infertility evaluation.
  • Obtain a tissue biopsy in organs to confirm suspected cancer of the abdominal or pelvic organ.

Treatment Options for Gynaecological Conditions

Gynaecological examinations serve several purposes. The most important thing is to diagnose any abnormalities as quickly as possible. The sooner the treatment, the better the chances of managing or recovering from the condition.



Anterior vaginal wall repair


Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

Treatment for miscarriage

Stress incontinence treatment


A hysteroscopy looks inside your womb using a narrow telescope with a light and camera at the end, called a hysteroscope, which is passed through the vagina and cervix into the womb without any incisions.

The procedure is used to investigate many gynaecological symptoms including:

Fibroids and polyps can be diagnosed using a hysteroscope. It can also be used to treat gynaecological conditions such as removing fibroids, polyps, displaced intrauterine devices (IUDs), and scar tissue that can cause absent periods and reduced fertility.


Laparoscopy is a keyhole or minimally invasive surgery. It has a number of advantages over open surgery including faster recovery time and shorter hospital stay, less side effects such as pain, bleeding, and scarring.

Diagnostic laparoscopy is used to see inside the abdomen and pelvis and to take biopsies. It can diagnose endometriosis and investigate cancer. A small tube with a camera and light source called a laparoscope, is inserted through small incisions in the skin.

The procedure can also be used to treat problems in this area such as: 

Laparoscopy is usually performed under general anaesthetic.

Anterior vaginal wall repair

Anterior vaginal wall repair is a surgical operation to restore a sinking vaginal wall, known as a prolapse, and performed under general or spinal anaesthetic.

Symptoms of a vaginal wall prolapse include:

  • Unable to empty your bladder fully
  • Full feeling bladder all the time
  • Vaginal pressure
  • Bulging at the opening of your vagina
  • Urine leakage when coughing, sneezing, or lifting
  • Pain when having sex
  • Bladder infections

During the procedure, the gynaecologist will move the vagina back into its correct position, tightens bladder support and removes any bulge in the vagina.


Hysterectomy is a surgical method to remove a woman’s womb. Following a hysterectomy, a woman cannot become pregnant, so it is normally the last treatment option if other options are unsuccessful.

A hysterectomy treats:

There are many types of hysterectomy including:

  • Total hysterectomy: The womb and cervix are removed.
  • Subtotal hysterectomy: The upper part of the womb is removed, and the cervix and ovaries are left in place.

There are several ways a hysterectomy can be performed:

  • Vaginal hysterectomy: Performed entirely through an incision made in the vagina under general, spinal, or local anaesthetic, with no visible scars.
  • Laparoscopic hysterectomy: Tiny incisions made in the abdomen and vagina allow a laparoscope and instruments to be inserted. This minimally invasive surgery is performed under general anaesthesia.
  • Abdominal hysterectomy: An incision is made on the abdomen under general anaesthesia.

Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) replaces hormones that are at a lower level as you approach menopause. Menopause is described as when a woman permanently stops having periods, and she can no longer get pregnant.

HRT can relieve symptoms of the menopause such as: 

  • Hot flashes
  • Mood swings
  • Night sweats
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Reduced sex drive

Treatment for miscarriage

A miscarriage is defined as the loss of a pregnancy in the first 20 weeks. After a miscarriage, pregnancy tissue can be left in the womb. It will naturally pass out of the womb over time, or it can be removed earlier by taking medication that will cause the tissue to pass or by surgery.

Stress incontinence treatment

Stress incontinence is when the bladder leaks urine during physical activity, such as when:

  • Sneezing
  • Coughing
  • Changing position
  • Lifting something heavy

It is caused when the pelvic floor or sphincter muscles become weakened. Behavioural changes, pelvic floor muscle exercises and medicines are normally the first line of treatment. Surgery is recommended if these have no success.

Surgical options for stress incontinence include:

  • Tape procedures: Tape holds up the urethra in the correct position.
  • Sling procedures: A sling is used to support the bladder neck and urethra.
  • Colposuspension: Laparoscopic or open surgery to lift the tissues between your bladder and urethra.
  • Artificial urinary sphincter: Replacement urinary sphincter.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What are the 5 essential screenings for women?

Please note that these are recommended ages. Your doctor will advise you if otherwise.

  1. Basic health screening

    Ages: 18 years and above

    How often: Once a year

  2. Cervical cancer screening (Pap Test)

    Ages: 21 to 65

    How often: 3 years once

    Note: HPV infection is the leading cause of cervical cancer.

  3. Breast cancer screening (Mammogram)

    Ages: 40 to 74

    How often: 2 to 3 years once

  4. Colorectal cancer screening

    Ages: 50 to 75

    How often: 10 years once

  5. Bone density test

    Ages: 65 and older

    How often: 3 to 5 years once

Learn more about 7 health screening tests that every woman should go for.

Who and when should visit a gynaecologist?

Gynaecology refers to the specialty that treats medical conditions that affect the female reproductive system - cervix, uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and vagina. A gynaecologist’s focus is on the non-pregnancy aspects of a woman’s reproductive health. These include:

What do you need to know before meeting a gynaecologist?

Once you schedule an appointment with an Obstetrics and Gynaecology specialist, the doctor will initially ask you a series of questions about your condition or symptoms.

An OB/GYN appointment may involve several types of examinations. The examination that an OB/GYN may choose to perform depends on the reason for a patient’s visit, their sexual activity and age.

These examinations include:

  • External genital examination: Involves an observation of the area around the vaginal opening, such as the labia, vulva, and clitoris.
  • Pelvic examination: Annual examination for women who are sexually active, which involves detecting abnormalities which affect the vagina, ovaries, cervix, and uterus.
  • Breast examination: Involves a check for lumps, as well as physical changes or abnormalities on the breasts, underarms or area below the clavicle that could indicate the presence of breast cancer.
  • Pap smear: An examination that involves collecting cells from the cervix to test for cervical cancer. It is performed every two to three years for women who are or have been, sexually active. If two consecutive yearly results are negative, subsequent examination can be done every three years.
  • Ultrasound screenings
  • Colposcopy: An examination and treatment of the internal vagina walls.
  • Cervical biopsy: An examination of the cervix.
  • Endocervical curettage: Cutting/removal of abnormal growth lesions inside the cervix.
  • Endometrial biopsy: An examination of the uterus lining.
  • Hysteroscopy: An examination of the inside of the uterus/womb.
  • Speculum examination: An examination of the vaginal wall with a plastic or metal device.
  • Pregnancy testing

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Obstetrics & Gynaecology Specialists at Gleneagles Hospitals

The caring and dedicated team of Obstetrics & Gynaecology specialists is available for consultation and to provide the best care. Get in touch with us to book an appointment today.
Gleneagles Hospital Kota Kinabalu
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+6088 518 911
Gleneagles Hospital Kuala Lumpur
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