Orthopaedic and trauma surgery is a medical specialty that involves the care for developmental, traumatic, and degenerative disorders of the musculoskeletal system (joints, bones, ligaments, tendons, cartilage, and muscles), including the spine.
The team of orthopaedic surgeons at the Gleneagles Hospitals would be able to assess and recommend appropriate treatment options (surgical and non-surgical).
- - Degenerative disc disease
- - Lumbar spinal stenosis
- - Sciatica (pinched nerve)
- - Scoliosis
- - Spondylosis
- - Spondylolisthesis
- - Herniated disc
- - Bulging disc
- - Slipped disc
- - Radiculopathy (pinched nerve)
- - Carpal tunnel syndrome
- - Cubital tunnel syndrome
- - Trigger finger
- - De Quervain’s tenosynovitis
- - Ganglion cysts
- - Arthritis
- - Tendonitis
- - Medial epicondylitis (Golfer's elbow)
- - Lateral epicondylitis (Tennis elbow)
- - Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury
- - Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury
- - Meniscal injury
- - Bursitis
- - Tendonitis
- - Arthritis
- - Osteoporosis
- - Avascular necrosis
- - Achilles’ tendonitis
- - Plantar fasciitis (foot pain)
- - Arthritis
- - Benign bone tumours (non-cancerous)
- - Osteoma
- - Osteochondroma
- - Chondroblastoma
- - Malignant bone tumours (cancerous)
- - Osteosarcoma
- - Ewing’s sarcoma
- - Multiple myeloma
- - Chondrosarcoma
- - Metastatic bone disease (cancer from other parts of the body spreads to the bone)
- - Closed fractures (broken bone that does not puncture the skin)
- - Open fractures (broken bone that punctures the skin)
- - Stress fractures (small crack in the bone due to repetitive active or overuse)
- - Dislocation (a joint forced apart and out)
- - Overuse injuries
- - Clubfoot (Congenital Talipes Equinovarus)
- - Flat feet (Pes Planus or Planovalgus)
- - Perthes disease
- - Muscular dystrophy
- - Limb length discrepancy
- - Deformities
- - Gait disorders (walking disorders)
- - Developmental dysplasia of the hip
- - Hip dislocation
- - Scoliosis
- - Spondylolysis
- - Muscle, bone, and joint infections
- - Brachial plexus injury
The causes of orthopaedic conditions vary depending on the problem. Wear and tear in the joints is a common cause of disease as people age.
Many orthopaedic conditions are caused by overuse, repetitive actions, and trauma.
Signs and symptoms vary according to the condition and may include:
- Joint pain
- Muscle pain
- Bone pain
- Limited range of motion
- Functional disability
Untreated orthopaedic conditions can lead to complications. Contact your doctor to make an appointment if you have any of the symptoms mentioned above and are unable to perform your daily tasks due to the symptoms.
Diagnosis is made based on various investigations. Your doctor would first question your general health and symptoms before conducting a thorough physical examination.
The most commonly used tests are X-ray, CT scan, and MRI. Additional tests such as biopsy may be required for certain conditions to help ascertain the diagnosis.
- Imaging tests
The most effective approach for diagnosing orthopaedic conditions. X-rays can be used to diagnose fractures of bones, dislocation of joints and evaluate bone density/ architecture.
- Computed Tomography (CT) Scan
A CT scan creates detailed images of your body using X-rays and computer technology. A CT scan may be requested if your doctor suspects a fracture or tumour that is not visible on an X-ray or if there was severe trauma to the spinal cord or pelvis.
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
MRI utilises powerful magnetic fields and radio waves to produce detailed cross-sectional images of your body. It produces excellent soft-tissue contrast, enabling the differentiation of various soft tissues, such as ligaments, tendons, muscles, and cartilage.
- Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA)
This procedure utilises x-rays to measure bone density. It is usually used to diagnose or assess the risk of osteoporosis, a condition that weakens bones and increases their susceptibility to fracture.
- Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan
A PET scan is a whole-body scan that aids in determining the extent of cancer spread to other parts of the body.
- Blood Tests
Your doctor may also request various blood tests. Certain conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis can be determined by the presence of rheumatoid factor (RF) in your blood.
- Electromyography (EMG)
EMG evaluates and analyses the electrical activity in nerves and muscles to detect abnormalities. During this procedure, small needles are placed through the skin and into the muscle. The test is entirely painless despite the involvement of small needles.
A small tissue sample may be removed from the affected area of your body and sent to the laboratory to be examined. There are many types of biopsies, including needle and excision biopsies.
Different orthopaedic conditions have distinct treatments and procedures. Therefore, it is essential to have skilled medical professionals attend to you to ensure you receive the best treatment.
Common procedures include:
Arthroscopy is a keyhole surgical procedure used to examine or repair joints. In this keyhole surgery, small incisions are made in your body and a tiny camera is inserted. The images are presented on a screen and a device is used to correct the condition.
- a) Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery
ACL reconstruction is a surgical tissue graft replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament, located in the knee, to restore its function after an injury.
In this procedure, a ligament is constructed using a tendon to replace the ACL. The torn ligament can either be removed from the knee or preserved before reconstruction.
- b) Subacromial decompression
An arthroscopic procedure done to release the tight coracoacromial ligament and to remove bone tissue in the subacromial space.
A procedure that involves releasing the carpal ligament to alleviate pressure on the median nerve. This minor procedure can be performed as day surgery under local anaesthesia.
A trigger finger is a condition where one or more of the tendons in the hand are affected and unable to band the affected thumb or finger.
Two surgical options are:
- a. Open trigger finger release
- b. Percutaneous trigger finger release surgery
Both the surgeries only require local anaesthesia, and you would be able to return home the same day.
A tendon from one of your healthy fingers would be detached and reattached to the affected thumb or finger.
Arthroplasty is a surgical procedure done to restore the functionality of a joint by resurfacing bones and replacing it using an artificial joint called prosthesis. This procedure is commonly done for osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease.
Arthroplasty may be recommended when medical treatments are insufficient to alleviate joint discomfort and/or disability.
The most common sites for joint surgery:
- Hip - Hip arthroplasty/total hip replacement
- Knee - Knee arthroplasty/total knee replacement
A spine osteotomy is a procedure to correct spinal deformities and restabilise the spine.
The procedures include:
- - Posterior spinal fusion
- - Anterior spinal fusion
- - Growth modulation techniques – vertebral body tethering
A discectomy is performed to treat herniated or slipped discs in the spine. It involves the removal of the part of the disc which is exerting pressure on the nerve. This can be done as an open surgery or minimally invasive.
A procedure that relieves pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots caused by spinal stenosis. Spinal stenosis is the narrowing of the spinal canal resulting in pressure in the spinal cord. This causes pain, weakness, or numbness in your back, legs, arms, and neck.
This surgical procedure removes tissue and bone exerting pressure on the spine. It is also used to treat spinal injuries, herniated discs, and spinal tumours.
Depending on the type, location and severity of the fracture, a range of techniques are used to ensure that the bones are healing and stable to retain function. This may include immobilisation and the insertion of pins, plates, wires, and screws.
The caring and multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals are available for consultation and to provide the best care. Make a move towards improving your health and quality of life. Get in touch with us to book an appointment today. We assure you the best possible care tailored to your specific needs.
Our hospitals are equipped with the latest technologies, orthopaedic surgery advancements and comprehensive facilities including fully equipped rehabilitation centres for all forms of orthopaedic conditions. Gleneagles Hospital is committed to delivering world-class services that focuses on patient safety.