Chemotherapy using one or a combination of toxic drugs that circulate in the bloodstream and kill rapidly growing cells, including healthy ones. It also alleviates the symptoms of NPC.
Neck dissection, if the NPC has spread to neighbouring lymph nodes, in order to remove cancerous lymph nodes, after resection of the primary tumour
Brachytherapy, which uses thin metal rods containing radioactive materials to deliver radiation to cancer cells
Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT), a radiation method that allows the precise and computer-guided delivery of radiation beams to kill cancer cells, while sparing surrounding healthy tissues
Radiotherapy or external energy beams can be used to kill cancer cells and alleviate symptoms of NPC.