Valvular Heart Disease | Gleneagles Hospitals

Valvular Heart Disease

Valvular heart disease results from damage to one of the four heart valves (tricuspid, mitral, pulmonary, or aortic).

  • The tricuspid and mitral valves regulate blood flow between the heart and the atria
  • The aortic valve regulates blood flow between the heart and the aorta
  • The pulmonary valve regulates blood flow from the heart to the lungs


Although valvular heart disease may be a congenital disorder, it is frequently acquired later in life. Causes may include:

  • Rheumatic fever: If left untreated, the bacterial infection might damage the valves
  • Bacterial endocarditis:Caused by bacteria that infiltrate the bloodstream and settle in the heart's lining, causing swelling and significant damage
  • Heart attack:Damages and weakens the muscles that control the heart valves
  • Systemic lupus
  • Tumour

Signs and symptoms

There may be no symptoms in certain cases of valvular heart disease. Valvular heart disease, however, can have serious implications in severe cases. The most typical signs and symptoms include:

  • Abnormal heartbeats/Heart palpations
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Lightheadedness or fainting
  • Swelling in the feet, ankles and abdomen
  • Fast weight gain

Risk factors

  • Older age
  • Hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes and other risk factors for heart disease
  • Congenital heart disease (acquired from birth)
  • Previous heart attack, heart disease or heart infections


  • Physical examination
  • Heart magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Electrocardiogram (ECG)
  • Echocardiogram
  • Chest X-ray
  • Angiogram

Treatment options

The course of treatment is determined by the severity of the condition. You may not require treatment if the condition is minor.

Options for treatment may include:

  • Medicines for the relief of swelling, abnormal heart rhythm, hypertension and other symptoms e.g., diuretics, antiarrhythmics and blood thinners
  • Heart valve surgery such as the replacement and repair of the heart valves


Maintain a healthy lifestyle to reduce your risk. Here are some steps you can take:

  • Quit smoking
  • Keep a healthy weight
  • Stay physically active
  • Manage your stress
  • Keep a healthy diet
  • Reduce your intake of alcohol

Visit your nearest Gleneagles Hospital to learn more about our Cardiology Services



  1. Valvular heart disease. Available at [Accessed on 29 April 2022]
  2. Valvular heart disease. Available at [Accessed on 29 April 2022]
  3. Heart valve disease. Available at [Accessed on 29 April 2022]
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