Kidney Stones

Kidney Stones


Kidney Stones is known as a urinary disorder and has crystallised salt or chemicals that are present in the urine. These stones block urine flow and can lead to serious infections. Essentially, this can lead to kidney damage or even kidney failure. Kidney Stones are made up of a variety of chemicals such as calcium, phosphate, and oxalate.

Women are more susceptible to suffer from Kidney Stones specifically for those that in the ages of 20s till 40s. Certain types of Kidney Stones are made of different chemicals, these include:

- Calcium Oxalate Stones or Calcium Phosphate Stones (the most common)

- Cystine Stones

- Struvite Stones

- Uric Acid Stones


Formation of Kidney Stones develop when:

- Low levels of substances that block these mineral from crystallising in the urine.

- Concentrated minerals such as calcium, oxalate, phosphate, uric acid, or cysteine

- Alternative conditions for example cystic kidney diseases, urinary tract infections and metabolic disorders exist.

There are many risk factors, these include:

- Dietary factors include lack of fluids, high consumption of salt intake, high consumption of oxalate rich foods for example certain nuts, almonds, peanutes, strawberries, tea, and coffee), and high intake of purine-rich foods such as organ meats and shellfish.

- Environmental factors, for example hot weather conditions that causes too much sweat while lacking fluids in your body system. This can lead to low levels of urine and concentrated minerals.

- Genetic factors that include a solid family history of kidney stones


Syptoms of Kidney Stones might include:

- Blood in the urine

- Problems urinating if the size of stone shows too big

- Nausea and vomiting

- Pain when urinating

- Severe pain n the back and flanks of the abdomen, radiating towards the front and groin area


Treatment options can change depending on the Kidney Stone size. Your doctor will give an assessment and suggest these treatment options that may include:

Kidney stones that are small will not require any treatment. Just drink plenty of water to ensure the stones are excreted out in the urine. A presciption of painkillers might help to relieve pain during the process of passing stones.

In some cases where your kidney stones are too big, an Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL) might help to break down Kidney Stones into tiny pieces. It will be easier to pass out with your urine in the next few days. Medication can be used according to the size of your Kidney Stones. Other surgical procedure, Percutaneous Nephrolithotripsy (PCNL) is a procedure that is performed by a small surgical incision through the back and into the kidneys to take out the stones. Alternatively, Uretero-Renoscopy (URS) uses an endoscope that enters through the urethra and bladder and eventually into the kidney to target stones. These stones are then broken down to be taken out.

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