As one of the most effective ways to treat liver and bile duct tumours, this form of surgery also helps with treatment of symptoms which may include:
- Removal of gallstones or the entire gallbladder
- Removal of tumours such as hemangioma and focal nodular hyperplasia
- Treatment and/or removal of fluid-filled cysts in the liver which may cause pain and weight loss
- Treatment of pancreatic cancer
When cells in the liver become malignant and grow out of control, this can cause tumours which lead to Primary Liver Cancer. Secondary (metastatic) liver cancer also occurs when a main cancer located elsewhere within the body causes the cancer cells to be deposited in the liver.
Because the liver is made up of a wide variety of cells, Primary Liver Cancer is usually named after the cells in which the cancer has developed. Main cells called the hepatocytes will usually lead to hepatocellular carcinoma or hepatoma and cells that line the bile ducts (tubes) are then called cholangiocytes. Tumours within these cells are called cholangiocarcinoma or bile duct cancer.
Lungs are made of complex tubes called bronchi (air passages) that allow air to flow in and out via your trachea (windpipe). When malignant growths in the tissues that line these tubes occur, Lung Cancer develops.
Currently, there are two main types of Lung Cancer:
- Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer - the most common type of lung cancer.
- Small Cell Lung Cancer - less common, but spreads quickly to other parts of the body through the blood.
The most common type of Kidney Cancer is Renal Cell Carcinoma. These cancer cells will appear in the lining of tubules (very small tubes) in the kidneys and it grows rapidly to form an isolated mass, or a tumour, within the kidneys. There can be more than one tumour appearing in one or both kidneys. This form of Kidney Cancer usually occur in men that are aged between 50 to 70 years old.
The Kidney organs functions as filters to excrete extra fluids, electrolytes and waste from your bloodstream. At the same time, the important elements are maintained. These kidneys are positioned on both sides of your spine.
Cancer is often treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or biological therapy by a team of specialist surgeons, radiation oncologists, and medical oncologists. The doctors may decide to use one or a combination of therapies described below, depending on factors such as patient’s health, type, location, and stage of cancer.
Biological therapy and immunotherapy uses drug therapy that targets specifically abnormal tumour growth.
Chemotherapy treatment is used either orally or through intravenous drugs.
Surgical process is needed to remove the tumour as a whole or in small masses that can be done depending on the size and location in the brain.
Cancer screening tests are done with the aim to detect diseases at an early stage before any symptoms become noticeable.
Screening for the top three most common cancers in Malaysia may include the following types of tests:
Mammography which involves using X-rays to detect abnormal growths or tumours is a commonly used test for women who may or may not have symptoms and signs of breast cancer.
Breast MRI and ultrasound may also be used to screen women with a high risk of breast cancer, but these are not the usual screening tests.
Cervical cancer screening includes the Pap test or also known as Pap Smear test and for some women may require a HPV test. Both tests are done by taking cells from the cervix. The screening process is simple and fast. Cells are removed from the cervix with a swab or other sampling instrument. The cells are usually put into a special liquid and sent to the laboratory for testing.
- For Pap test, the sample is examined to see if abnormal cells are present
- For HPV test, the sample is tested for the presence of 13-14 of the most common high risk HPV types
Women aged 21 to 65 years are recommended to repeat her pap test every three years. If the procedure is combined with testing for HPV, it should be done every five years.
Colorectal cancer almost always develops from precancerous polyps in the colon or rectum. The most common type of screening test is a Colonoscopy. In this method, a colonoscope, which is a flexible lighted tube with a viewing lens is used to insert through the anus into the rectum and colon. During a colonoscopy, any abnormal growths found in the colon or rectum can be removed.
It is recommended to start your colonoscopy screening at the age 50 and repeat the procedure every 10 years if you are at the low risk group.
Different types of tests may be done to help detect signs of other types of cancers which include:
- Blood tests that detect levels of
- Alpha-fetoprotein for liver cancer
- Prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer
- CA-125 for ovarian cancer
- Pap test or Human papillomavirus (HPV) test to check for the presence of precancerous or cancerous cells on the cervix. During the routine procedure, cells from the cervix are removed and then examined in a laboratory for abnormal growth.